kaaba, the holy shrime of the muslims all around the world. what realy lies upon it's greatnest
Muslim history is the history of Muslim people, and the territories they ruled. In the history of Islam the followers of the religion of Islam have impacted political history, economic history, and military history. The concept of the Islamic world is useful in observing the different periods of Islamic history; similarly useful is an understanding of the identification with a quasi-political community of believers, or ummah. The Islamic cultural identity, or identity as a member of the ummah, has influenced the history of the world. Islamic world territories haves included populations of people of other religions, such as Christian and Jews, and the levels have varied over the centuries.
Three centuries after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (High Middle Ages), the Arab Caliphates extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. The subsequent empires of the Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Ghaznavids, Seljuqs, Safavids, Mughals, and Ottomans were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. The Islamic civilization gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; and the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace.
In the later Middle Ages, destructive Mongol invasions from the East, and the loss of population in the Black Death, greatly weakened the traditional centre of the Islamic world, stretching from Persia to Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire was able to conquer most Arabic-speaking areas, creating an Islamic world power again, although one that was to prove conservative and unable to develop to meet the challenges of the Early Modern period.
Later, in modern history (18th century and 19th century), many Islamic regions fell under the influence of European Great powers. After the First World War, the territorial possessions of the Ottoman empire (a Central Powers member) were partitioned and divided into several nations under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres. Since 1924, there has been no degree of an accepted claim as Caliph (tr., "successor") to the caliphate (tr.,"dominion of successor") [ed., This had been last claimed by the Ottomans].
Modern notions of the texts of Islam portrays the unification of religion and state ruled by a Caliph, and the aspiration of achieving such a contemporary polity has been powerful in the recent centuries of Islamic history; although the size of the Islamic world, and the ambitions of local rulers, meant it has been unrealized since the early Islamic city-states and universal imperial period beginnings. The common slogan al-islam dinun was dawlatun` (tr., Islam is a religion and a state) is neither a Koranic verse nor a quote from the hadith but a 19th century political Salafi slogan popularized in opposition to Western Egyptian influence — a 19th century political origin being no problem for many other ideologies, but a handicap for a belief system predicated on following the scripture revealed in, and the ways of those who lived in, twelve centuries earlier.
Although affected by various other ideologies, such as communism, during much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues have intensified during the contemporary period (early 21st century). The fast-growing global interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts andglobalization have changed the influence of Islam on the world of the 21st century.
According to the professor of Middle Eastern studies, Majid Khadduri, the Islamic state and Muslim's system of government evolved through various stages. The precise dates of various periods in history are more or less arbitrarily assumed according to the point of view adopted. The City-state period lasted from 620s to 630s. The Imperial period lasted from 630s to 750s. The Universal periodlasted from 750s to around 900s. These corresponds to the early period of the Middle Ages. The "Decentralization" period lasted from around 900s to the early 1500s. This correspond to the high periodand late period of the Middle Ages. The "Fragmentation" period lasted from around 1500s, the beginning with the early modern period, to the late 1910s. The contemporary period, referred to as theNational period, lasted from 1910s to the present day. Any hard and fast line drawn to designate either the beginning or close of the period in question is arbitrary.
Pre-Islamic Arabia saw Arab people who lived in the Arabian Plate before the rise of Islam in the 630s. In the south of Hedjaz (principal religious and commercial centre of Middle Ages Arabia), the Arabic tribe of Quraysh (Adnani Arabs), to which Mohammed belonged, had been in existence. Near Mecca, the tribe was increasing in power. The Quraysh were the guardians of the Kaaba, within the town of Mecca and was the dominant tribe of Mecca upon the appearance of the religion of Islam. The Kaaba was an important Pagan shrine which also brought revenues to Mecca because of the multitude of pilgrims that it attracted. Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim tribe of the Quraysh clan, a branch of the Banu Kinanah tribe, descended from Khuzaimah and derived its inheritance from the Khuza'imah (House of Khuza'a).
According to the traditional Islamic view, the Qur'an (Koran) began with revelations on Muhammad's Koranic revelations in 610. The verses of the Qur'an were revealed to the Sahabah during Muhammad's life and were written down in the history of the Qur'an. The rise of Islam begins around the time the Muslims took flight, the Hijra, to the city of Medina. With Islam, the effects of blood feuds among the Arabs were lessened. Compensation was paid in money rather than blood or the culprit himself only could be executed.
In 628, the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Madina had signed a truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyya beginning a ten-year period of peace, which was broken when the Quraish and their allies, the tribe of 'Bakr', attacked the tribe of 'Khuza'ah', who were allies of the Muslims. In the year 630, Mecca was conquered by the Muslims. Muhammad died in June 632. The Battle of Yamama was fought in December of the same year, between the forces of the first caliph Abu Bakr and Musailima.
After Muhammed died, a series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State: Abu Bakr (632-634), Umar ibn al-Khattab (Umar І, 634-644), Uthman ibn Affan (644-656), Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661). These first Caliphs are known as the "Rashidun" or "rightly guided" Caliphs in Sunni Islam, and oversaw the initial phase of the Muslim conquests, conquering Persia, Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa. Begun in the time of Uthman ibn Affan, the compilation of the Qur'an was finished sometime between 650 and 656, Uthman sent copies of it to the different centers of the expanding Islamic empire. From then on, thousands of Muslim scribes began copying the Qur'an.Afterwards, factions arose and the last two Rashidun caliphs were murdered. The death of Uthman was followed by a civil war known as the First Fitna, and the succession to Ali ibn Abi Talib was disputed, leading to the split between the Sunni and Shia traditions in Islam, and later to competing caliphates when the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah and Ali set up their own Fatimid caliphate.
After the peace treaty with Ali's son, Hassan ibn Ali, and the suppression of the revolt of the Kharijites, Muawiyah I proclaimed himself Caliph in 661 and began consolidating power. In 663, a new Kharijite revolt resulted in the death of their chief. In 664, Muawiyah and Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan reached an agreement: the Caliph recognised Ziyad as a brother - Ziyad now adopted the name ibn Abi Sufyan - and appointed him governor at Basra. Muawiyah had arranged for his son Yazid I to be appointed caliph on his death, which came in 680. Husain ibn Ali, by then Muhammad's only living grandson, refused to swear alleigance to Yazid, and he was killed in the Battle of Karbala the same year, an event still mourned by Shia's on the Day of Ashura. Unrest continued in the Second Fitna, but Muslim rule was extended under Muawiyah to Rhodes, Crete, Kabul, Bukhara, and Samarkand, and expanded in North Africa. In 664, Arab armies conquered Kabul, and in 665 pushed into theMaghreb.
|City-states and Imperial period|
The Umayyad dynasty (or Ommiads), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph, ruled as Caliphs from 661 to 750. Although the Umayyad family came from the city of Mecca, Damascus was the capital of their Caliphate. After the death of Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr in 666, Muawiyah I had consolidated his power in the Umayyad Caliphate. The causes which occurred in the Al-Rashidun and Warring period which brought about the triumph of the Umayyad dynasty led Muawiyah I to substitute Damascus for Medina as the seat of the Caliphate; an event which led to profound changes in the historical power and Muslim empire, and exercised a considerable influence on its development. In the same way, at a later date, the transfer of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad marked the accession of a new family to the supreme power, and gave Islam a new direction. The Umayyads viewed Islam as a religion exclusively for Arabs. Umayyads, the Muslim minority ruling class, structured the state based on a system that the Dhimmis would pay taxes. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. After conversion in the period, non-Arab converts, called mawali, did not achieve social and economic equality with Arab Muslims.
At its largest extent, the Umayyad dynasty covered more than five million square miles, making it one of the largest empires the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest contiguous empire ever to exist. After the Umayyads were overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate, they fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031.
Muawiyah beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia. Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war anarchy. However, Shia Muslimscharge that if anything, he was the instigator of the civil war, and weakened the Muslim nation and divided the Ummah, fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies and slander against the Prophet's family and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire. One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor. According to Shi'a doctrine, this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali, in which Muawiyah said he would not make his son his successor.
During the caliphate of Yazid, Muslims suffered several setbacks. In 682 AD Yazid restored Uqba ibn Nafi as the governor of North Africa. Uqba won battles against the Berbers and Byzantines.From there Uqba marched on thousands of miles westward towards Tangier, where he reached the Atlantic coast, and then marched eastwards through the Atlas Mountains. With cavalry numbering about 300, he proceeded towards Biskra where he was ambushed by a Berber force under Kaisala. Uqba and all his men died fighting. The Berbers launched an attack and drove Muslims from north Africa for a period. This was a major setback for the Muslims, because of this they lost supremacy at sea, and had to abandon the islands of Rhodes and Crete.
The following years the Umayyad's reign, under Muawiya II, was marked by civil wars (Second Fitna). This would ease in the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, a well-educated man and capable ruler. Despite the many political problems that impeded his rule, all important records were translated into Arabic. In his reign, a special currency for the Muslim world was minted. This led to war with the Byzantine Empire under Justinian II (Battle of Sebastopolis) in 692 in Asia Minor. The Byzantines were decisively defeated by the Caliph after the defection of a large contingent of Slavs. The Islamic currency was then made the only currency exchange in the Muslim world. Also, many reforms happened in his time as regards agriculture and commerce. Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it, made Arabic the state language, and organized a regular postal service.
Al-Walid I began the next stage of the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents. He reconquered parts of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire and moved on into Carthage and across to the west of North Africa. Muslim armies under Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer Spain using North African Berber armies. The Visigoths of Spain had been defeated when the Umayyad conquered Lisbon. Spain would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (they were stopped at the Battle of Tours). In the east, Islamic armies under Muhammad bin Qasim made it as far as the Indus Valley — under Al-Walid, the caliphate empire stretched from Spain to India. Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef played a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders. Al-Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in Ummayad era, it was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Spain. His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power.
Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik was hailed as caliph the day al-Walid died. He appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Mesopotamia. Sulayman ordered the arrest and execution of the family of al-Hajjaj, one of two prominent leaders (the other was Qutaibah bin Muslim) who had supported the succession of al-Walid's son Yazid, rather than Sulayman. Al-Hajjaj had predeceased al-Walid, so he was no longer alive to pose a threat. Qutaibah renounced allegiance to Sulayman, though his troops rejected his appeal to revolt. They killed him and sent his head to Sulayman. Sulayman did not move to Damascus on becoming Caliph, but rather he remained in Ramla in Palestine. Sulayman sent Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik to attack the Byzantine capital (siege of Constantinople). After the intervention of Bulgaria on Byzantine side it ultimately proved to be unsuccessful. The siege of Constantinople failed to take the city and was sustaining heavy losses at the hands of allied Byzantine and Bulgarian forces. Sulayman died suddenly in 717.
Umar II, after the death of Sulayman and ascension to the Caliph position, strictly enforced the Sharia. Though, he would abolish the Jizya tax for converts to Islam, who were former dhimmis and were taxed even after they had converted under other Umayyad rulers. Umar II ordered the first collection of hadithmaterial in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at Umar's behest. Umar also sent Ibn Hatim ibn al-Nu'man to repel Turks invading Azerbaijan. He faced Kharijite uprising and preferred negotiations to armed conflict, personally holding talks with two Kharijite envoys shortly before his death. He recalled the troops besieging Constantinople. This was a serious blow to Umayyad prestige.
Yazid II came to power on the death of Umar II. Yazid fought the Kharijites, whom Umar had been negotiating, and killed the Kharijite leader Shawdhab. In Yazid's reign, numerous civil wars began to break out in different parts of the empire. Yazid pushed into the Caucasus and expanded the Caliphate's territory. He died in 724. Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik was ruling an empire with many different problems. He would, however, be effective in attending to these problems, and in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. His long rule was an effective one, and it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar II. Under Hisham's rule, regular raids against the Byzantines continued. In North Africa, Kharijite teachings combined with natural local restlessness to produce a significant Berber revolt. He was also faced with a revolt by Zayd bin Ali. Hisham put down both revolts. Despite Hisham's successes, the Abbasids continued to gain power, building power bases in Khurasan and Iraq. However, they would not prove strong enough to make a move yet. Some of them were caught, punished or executed by eastern governors. The Battle of Akroinon, a decisive Byzantine victory, was in the final campaign of the Umayyad dynasty. Hisham died in 743.
Al-Walid II saw political intrigue in his reign as Caliph. During the reign of his cousin al-Walid II, Yazid III spoke out against Walid's "immorality" which included discrimination on behalf of the Banu Qays Arabs against Yemenis and non-Arab Muslims, and Yazid received further support from the Qadariya and Murji'iya (believers in human free will). Walid was shortly thereafter deposed in a coup. Following this up with a disbursement of funds from the treasury,Yazid acceded to the Caliph and explained that he had rebelled on behalf of the Book of Allah and the Sunna. Yazid reigned for six months, having various groups refuse allegiance to him and experiencing the rise of dissident movements, and died. Ibrahim ibn al-Walid, named heir apparent by his brother Yazid III, only ruled for a short time in 744 before he abdicated. Marwan II ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus. Marwan named his two sons Ubaydallah and Abdallah heirs. He appointed governors and proceeded to assert his authority by force. However, anti-Umayyad feeling was very prevalent, especially in Iran and Iraq. The Abbasids had gained much support. As such, Marwan's reign as caliph was almost entirely devoted to trying to keep the Umayyad empire together. Marwan's death signalled the end of Umayyad fortunes in the East, and was followed by the mass-killing of Umayyads by the Abbasids. Almost the entire Umayyad dynasty was killed, except for the talented prince Abd ar-Rahman who escaped to Spain and founded an Umayyad dynasty there.
The gains of the Ummayad empire were consolidated upon when the Abbasid dynasty rose to power in 750, with the conquest of the Mediterranean islands including the Balearics and Sicily. Theruling party had been instated on the wave of dissatisfaction propagated against the Ummayads, cultured by the Abbasid revolutionary, Abu Muslim. Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. Most notable was the development of Arabic prose and poetry, termed by The Cambridge History of Islam as its "golden age". This was also the case for commerce and industry (considered a Muslim Agricultural Revolution), and the arts and sciences (considered a Muslim Scientific Revolution), which prospered, under the rule of Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur (ruled 754 — 775),Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786 — 809), al-Ma'mun (ruled 809 — 813), and their immediate successors.
|Universal Golden period|
Baghdad was made the capital of the caliphate (moved from the previous capital, Damascus) due to the importance placed by the Abbasids upon eastern affairs in Persia and Transoxania. It was at this time however, that the caliphate showed signs of fracture and we witness the uprising of regional dynasties. Although the Ummayad family had been killed by the revolting Abbasids, one family member, Abd ar-Rahman I, was able to flee to Spain and establish an independent caliphate there in 756. In the Maghreb region, Harun al-Rashid appointed the Arab Aghlabids as virtually autonomous rulers, although they continued to recognise the authority of the central caliphate. Aghlabid rule was short lived, as they were deposed by the Shiite Fatimid dynasty in 909. By around 960, the Fatimids had conquered Abbasid Egypt, building a capital there in 973 called "al-Qahirah" (meaning "the planet of victory", known today as Cairo). Similar was the case in Persia, where the Turkic Ghaznavids managed to snatch power from the Abbasids. Whatever temporal power of the Abbasids remained had been consumed by the Great Seljuq Empire (a Muslim Turkish clan which had migrated into mainland Persia), in 1055.
During this time, expansion continued, sometimes by military warfare, sometimes by peaceful proselytism. The first stage in theconquest of India began just before the year 1000. By some 200 (from 1193 — 1209) years later, the area up to the Ganges river had been conquered. In sub-Saharan West Africa, it was just after the year 1000 that Islam was established. Muslim rulers are known to have been in Kanem starting from sometime between 1081 to 1097, with reports of a Muslim prince at the head of Gao as early as 1009. The Islamic kingdoms associated with Mali reached prominence later, in the 13th century.
The Abbasids began to develop Islamic initiatives aimed at greater unity. Islamic faith and mosques separated by doctrine, history, and practice were driven to cooperate. The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali". The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Islamic ecumenism, promoted by the Abbasids, refers to the idea of unity of the Ummah in the literal meaning: that there was a single faith. Islamic philosophy developed as the Shariah was codified, and the four Madhabs were established and built. This era also saw the rise of classical Sufism. The achievement, however, was completion of the canonical collections of Hadith of Sahih Bukhari and others. Islam recognized to a certain extent the validity of the Abrahamic religions, the Qur'an identifying Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and "Sabi'un" or "baptists" (usually taken as a reference to the Mandeans and related Mesopotamian groups) as "people of the book". Toward the begnning of the high Middle Ages, the Abbasids saw the doctrines of the Sunni and Shia, two majordenominations of Islam, created and the divisions of the world beyond their control would form. These trends would continue into the Fatimid and Ayyubid periods.
In addition, the Caliphate under the Abbasid evolved into an Islamic monarchy (unitary system of government) and the regional Sultanateand Emirate governors' existence, validity, or legality were acknowledge for unity of the state. In early Islamic philosophy of the Iberian Umayyads, Averroes presented an argument in The Decisive Treatise providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official Ash'ari theology, thus Averroism has been considered a precursor to modern secularism.
Early Middle Ages
According to Arab sources in the year 750, Al-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid Caliphate, launched a massive rebellion against the discriminatory Umayyad Caliphate from the province of Khurasan near Talas. After eliminating the entire Umayyad family and victory at the Battle of the Zab, Al-Saffah and his forces marched into Damascus and founded a new dynasty. His forces confronted many regional powers and consolidated the realm of the Abbasid Caliphate.
In Al-Mansur's time, there was an emergence of Persian scholarship. Also, there was a conversion of many non-Arabs to Islam. The Umayyads actively tried to discourage conversion in order to continue the collection of the jizya, or the tax on non-Muslims. The inclusiveness of the Abbasid regime, and that of al-Mansur, saw the expansion of Islam among its territory; in 750, roughly 8% of residents in the Caliphate were Muslims. This would double to 15% by the end of Al-Mansur's reign. Al-Mahdi, whose name means "Rightly-guided" or "Redeemer", was proclaimed caliph when his father was on his deathbed. The cosmopolitan city of Baghdad blossomed during Al-Mahdi's reign. The city attracted immigrants from all of Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Persia, and lands as far away as India and Spain. Baghdad was home to Christians, Jews, Hindus, and Zoroastrians, in addition to the growing Muslim population. It became the world's largest city. Al-Hadi was, like his father, very open to the people of his empire and allowed citizens to visit him in the palace at Baghdad to address him. As such, he was considered an "enlightened ruler", and continued the progressive moves of his Abbasid predecessors. His short rule was wreaked with numerous military conflicts.
The military conflicts would subside as Harun al-Rashid ruled. Al-Rashid reign was marked by scientific, cultural and religious prosperity. He established the library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") and the arts and music flourished during his reign. The family of Barmakids which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate declined gradually during his rule.
Al-Amin, according to signed pledges during a pilgrimage to Mecca, received the Caliphate from his father Harun Al-Rashid. Al-Amin faced Internal rebellions. The rebellion by Tahir resulted in Baghdad being besieged. Tahir led reinforcements to regain positions lost by another officer. When Tahir pushed into the city, Al-Amin sought to negotiate safe passage out. Tahir agreed on the condition Al-Amin turn over his sceptre, seal and other signs of being caliph. Al-Amin tried to leave on a boat and rejected warnings he should wait. Tahir noticed the boat. Al-Amin was thrown into the water, swam to shore, was captured and executed. His head was placed on the Al-Anbar Gate.
The Abbasids soon became caught within a three-way rivalry of Coptic Arabs, Indo-Persians, and the immigrant Turks. In addition, the cost of running a large empire became too great. The Turks, Egyptians, and Arabs belong to the Sunnite sect; the tenets of the Shiites are professed by the Persians, a great portion of the Turkic groups, and several of the princes in India. The political unity of Islam began to disintegrate. Independent dynasties, but still under the influence of the theoretical leadership of Abbasid caliphs, appeared in the Muslim world, and the caliphs recognized such dynasties as legitimate Muslim dynasties. The first of such dynasties was the Tahirid dynasty which was founded during the caliph Al-Ma'mun in the eastern portions of the empire, in Khorasan, and was nominally subject to the Abbasid caliphate. Subsequent similar dynasties which were independent yet recognized by the Abbasid caliph were the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids and Seljuqs. During this time, advancements were made in the areas of astronomy, poetry, philosophy, science, and mathematics.